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Extension lines should be offset from the part by one half the text height and should extend one text height beyond the dimension line

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INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER-IINTRODUCTION1.1 GENERAL The general philosophy of earthquake resistant design for buildings is: (i) to prevent non-structural damage in minor earthquakes which may occur frequently in the service life of a structure; (ii) to prevent structural damage and minimize non-structural damage in moderate earthquakes which may occasionally occur; and (iii) to avoid collapse or serious damage in major earthquakes which may rarely occur. However, codes only require buildings to be designed for one ultimate force level. In effect, buildings are explicitly designed only for the third criterion. The extensive damage and unprecedented economic losses caused by the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake, have stimulated designers and owners to consider how the design philosophy outlined above can be implemented to meet criteria (i) and (ii), and to protect a building owner's economic investment. The equivalent lateral force procedure for seismic design, as embodied in building codes of the India[15] and most other countries, is based on implicit consideration of inelastic structural response in the event of severe earthquakes. This approach has a number of deficiencies as summarized by Younghui Roger Li [5](1) The internal forces determined from elastic analysis under code-specified static forces are quite different from those produced during the inelastic earthquake response of the structure.(2) Although inelasticity may actually occur only

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