reaction mechanisms

Feb 3rd, 2012
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1. Show how the s-orbitals in the outer shells of 2 atoms can give rise to a covalent bond. Which type of covalent bond is this? 2. Show the ground state arrangement of electrons in the outer shell of a boron atom 3. Use arrows to show the direction and indicate the polarity of the dipoles in the following molecules: 4. For each of the structures in parts (a) to (c) draw the outcome of the indicated electron movements. 5. Draw the structures of the compounds formed (including the by-products) in the following reactions, the mechanism and state what type of reaction (i,e, if SN1, SN2, E1 or E2) it is.

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1. The covalent bond is formed through sharing the pair of electrons between the two atoms. When the atoms are equal, then occurred bond is the non-polar covalent bond.When the bond is formed by different atoms, the polar covalent or sometimes the ionic bond occurs.2. Boron atom have the atomic number 5, hence its nucleus contains 5 protons, and it has the five electrons. Its electronic configuration is 1s22s22p1, or it can be shown as [He]2s22p1.3.i.H2Oii.HFiii.C2H5CH(OH)C2H5C-C bond is weakly polar and its effect on the total dipole moment in the first approximation can be neglected. The carbon chain is shown as R on the picture:iv.Cu-CH3Polar covalent, partially ionic bond.v.CCl4Molecule CCl4 is non-polar despite the polarity of all C?Cl bonds. The CCl4, molecule has the tetrahedral symmetry, therefore the dipole moments of bonds balance each other, and the total dipole moment of molecule is zero.4.a.b.c.d.5.(a): SN2(b): E1(c): SN1(d): AdN2(e): E2(f): AdN2

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