Chemistry guide

May 11th, 2015
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This documents gives fully guide in chemistry it will enable the student understand chemistry well

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www.studyguide.pkIGCSECompleteChemistryNotesBy: Abdulla Al ZaabiRefined and cleared by KmQ! :Dwww.studyguide.pkUnit 1: States of matterEverything is made of particles. Particles in solid are not free to move around. Liquidsand gases can. As particles move they collide with each other and bounce off in alldirections. This is called random motion.In 2 substances, when mixed, particles bounce off in all directions when they collide.This mixing process is called diffusion. Its also the movement of particles without aforce.The smallest particle that cannot be broken down by chemical means is called an atom.In some substances, particles are just single atoms. For example the gas argon, foundin air, is made up of single argon atoms.In many substances, particles consist of 2 atoms joined together. These are calledmolecules.In other substances, particles consist of atoms or groups of atoms that carry a charge.These particles are called ions.Solids liquids and gasesSolid Properties: Definite shape and volume Normally hard and rigid Large force required to change shape High Density IncompressibleModel: Closely packed Occupy minimum space Regular pattern Vibrate in fixed position Not free to moveLiquid Properties: Definite volume but no shape. High Density Not compressibleModel: Occur in clusters with molecules slightly further apart compared to solids Free to move about within a confine

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