# Aristotle-Introduction to Logic

May 12th, 2015
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Logic is a study of Arguments and Reasoning. Arguments: Premises and Conclusion. Types of Arguments: Deductive and Inductive Arguments

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aristotlePHI 142: Introduction to LogicA. V. Ravishankar SarmaIndian Institute of Technology Kanpuravrs@iitk.ac.inAugust 5, 2014A. V. Ravishankar Sarma (IIT Kanpur)Basic Cocepts: ArgumentationAugust 5, 20141 / 92OutlineLogic is a study of Arguments and Reasoning.1Arguments: Premises and Conclusion.2Types of Arguments: Deductive and Inductive Arguments3Non-arguments vs Arguments.4Validity, Soundness of Deductive arguments5Strong and weak inductive arguments6Counter example method for the invalidity of arguments.7Toulmin's Model of Argumentation.A. V. Ravishankar Sarma (IIT Kanpur)Basic Cocepts: ArgumentationAugust 5, 20142 / 92What is Logic?1Traditionally, logic has been considered the most general science dealing with arguments.2The task of logic is to discover the fundamental principles for distinguishing good arguments from bad ones.3It is the study of those general principles that make certain patterns of argument valid and other patterns of argument invalid is called formal logic.Examples1Example1: A ? B and A , /? B. Valid2Example2: A ? B and A , / ? B InvalidA. V. Ravishankar Sarma (IIT Kanpur)Basic Cocepts: ArgumentationAugust 5, 20143 / 92Three functions of Language:Logical Function1When the language is used to convey the information.2Sentences uttered can be spoken as either true or false.There are two doors in this room.On September 1939, Adolf Hitler's army invade

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