German Filology

May 13th, 2015
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The first consonant shift separates the subfamily of Germanic languages from the other Indo-European languages. The shift operated during the period of Common Germanic (ca 1,000 B.C.) Proto-Indo-European was rich in stop consonants.

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German Filology"< ?<:germaani keelte iseloomulikud jooned66.ablaut ehk apofoonia (grammatiline ja leksikaalne vokaalivaheldus) * The term Ablaut was coined by Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) * Gradation affects the IE vowels e and o* e-grade (full grade)* o-grade* zero grade ()* gradation in Indo-European: e - o - - * (cf Eng pedal vs podium)* gradation in Germanic: i - a - - * (cf Eng sing vs sang/song* 1) qualitative gradation * (change of vowel quality)* 2) quantitative gradation * (change of vowel quantity, both e and o can occur as long " and , in which case the term lengthened grade is used, cf Eng tripod and foot)67.esimene hlikunihe (Grimmi seadus)The first consonant shift separates the subfamily of Germanic languages from the other Indo-European languages. The shift operated during the period of Common Germanic (ca 1,000 B.C.) Proto-Indo-European was rich in stop consonants. There were at least three series of them: 1) unvoiced series| p, t, k, kw|2) voiced series| b,d,g,gw|3) voiced aspirate series| bh,dh,gh,gwh|the unvoiced stops became the corresponding unvoiced fricativesthe voiced stops became the corresponding unvoiced stops:the voiced aspirate stops became the corresponding voiced stops68.minevikuoleviku verbid-?69.omadussnade tugev ja nrk knamisviisSTRONG DECLENSIONe.g. OE gd mann (= a good person)WEAK DECLENSIONThe weak declension was used when the adjective followed 1) a demonstrative e.g. OE

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