Air fuel Ratio

May 14th, 2015
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there has been a continuing effort to improve the efficiency and exhaust emissions of the automobile engine for the last three decades. A key development in the evolution was the introduction of closed loop control in the 70s [36].

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Air fuel RatioJ. David Powell, N. P. Fekete, and Chen-Fang Changhere has been a continuing effort to improve the efficiencyand exhaust emissions of the automobile engine for the lastthree decades. A key development in the evolution was the introduction of closed loop control in the 70s [36]. Initially, the closed loop control algorithms were very similarto what was previously implemented mechanically; however, as the electronics transitioned to increasingly capable microprocessors through the 90s, it became practical to entertain the use of moderncontrol and estimation algorithms in a production vehicle. These algorithms were proposed for automotive engine control in1978 by Athans [3], in 1980 by Cassidy etal., [9], in 1983 by Powers et al., [3S], andin 1987 by Kiencke [29]; however, duringthose times it was not realistic to expectthat such complexity could be put in a production engine and engine designers did not embrace the methods.In the 90s, there has been increasinginterest in the methods by many researchers with attention given to the practical implementation in an engine microprocessor and experimental evaluations. Specific applications of observers forAFR control based on measurements in the intake manifold(airflow or manifold pressure sensors) include the research by Bosch [7], a team led by Hendricks at the Technical University of Denmark [22], 1231, [26], University of Wisconsin, [30],theand Siemens, [ 11.Another approach is to base the

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