Antenna Arrays

May 15th, 2015
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1 Introduction Antenna arrays are becoming increasingly important in wireless communications. Advantages of using antenna arrays: 1. They can provide the capability of a steerable beam (radiation direction change) as in smart antennas. 2. They can provide a high gain (array gain) by using simple antenna elements. 3. They provide a diversity gain in multipath signal reception

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Antenna ArrayNUS/ECEEE4101Antenna Arrays1 Introduction Antenna arrays are becoming increasingly important in wireless communications. Advantages of using antenna arrays: 1. They can provide the capability of a steerable beam (radiation direction change) as in smart antennas. 2. They can provide a high gain (array gain) by using simple antenna elements. 3. They provide a diversity gain in multipath signal reception. 4. They enable array signal processing. Hon Tat Hui1Antenna ArraysNUS/ECEEE4101An important characteristic of an array is the change of its radiation pattern in response to different excitations of its antenna elements. Unlike a single antenna whose radiation pattern is fixed, an antenna arrays radiation pattern, called the array pattern, can be changed upon exciting its elements with different currents (both current magnitudes and current phases). This gives us a freedom to choose (or design) a certain desired array pattern from an array, without changing its physical dimensions. Furthermore, by manipulating the received signals from the individual antenna elements in different ways, we can achieve many signal processing functions such as spatial filtering, interference suppression, gain enhancement, target tracking, etc. Hon Tat Hui2Antenna ArraysNUS/ECEEE41012 Two Element ArrayszFar field observation pointDipole 2r1I 2 = Ie jdI1 = Irr1 = r d cos , 0 Dipole 1xTwo Hertzian dipoles

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