ASSETS = OWNER’S EQUITY + LIABILITIES

May 19th, 2015
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Reserves are unallocated profits. Reserves would be a part of owner’s equity, except for some reason are being held back from recognition as such. Bad debt reserves are owner’s equity held for the purpose of covering bad debt that may arise in future periods

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AccountingBasicsASSETS = OWNERS EQUITY + LIABILITIESCreditors are a liability. (You owe them.) = Payables.Increase of creditors is a source of cash.Debtors are an asset. (They owe you.) = Receivables.Increase of debtors is a consumption of cash.Net Profit = Change in Owners Equity.Gross Profit = Sales less Cost of Sales.Matching Convention: Profit is calculated by matching costs with the revenue recognized during the period.Allocation Convention: First, determine all costs. Second, allocate costs to sales, inventory, etc.Cost Convention: Items are valued at the historical cost of all input factors.Conservatism Convention: Recognize costs immediately and revenue only when it is certain.Accruals Convention: An obligation from a credit worthy customer may be regarded as a sale.Cost of Raw Materials in P/L Account = Opening Inventory + Purchases Closing InventoryValuation of Closing Inventory can be done by FIFO, LIFO or Average Value.High Valuation of Closing Inventory = High Profits, because low valuation of matched materials cost.Types of inventory: Raw Materials, Work-In-Progress, Finished Goods.Reserves are unallocated profits. Reserves would be a part of owners equity, except for some reason are being held back from recognition as such. Bad debt reserves are owners equity held for the purpose of covering bad debt that may arise in future periods.DepreciationStraight Line: Depreciation = (Purchase Cost Expected Residual V

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