Glossary-Common to Sociological

May 19th, 2015
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Association is the connection or relationship of two or more concepts or variables. Two variables have an association if the distribution of one variable changes in concert with the other. See also causation, correlation.

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GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMSCommon to Sociological RESEARCH METHODS, DATA ANALYSIS, THEORY, AND SEMINAR (For distribution in SOCI 251, 252, 353 & 454) Association is the connection or relationship of two or more concepts or variables. Two variables have an association if the distribution of one variable changes in concert with the other. See also causation, correlation.Bias is any situation in which the accuracy, reliability, validity, etc., of data, findings, or conclusions are distorted by the researcher's or theorist's methods or presuppositions (e.g., moral, political, religious beliefs or ideologies). In statistical analysis, bias is a technical term for a difference between a hypothetical true value of a variable in a population and the observed value in a particular sample. Causation is the principle that one variable (X) produces change in another variable (Y). It is based on the assumption that events occur in a predictable, nonrandom way, and that one event leads to, or causes, another. To establish causation, the two variables must be associated or correlated with each other; the first variable (X) must precede the second variable (Y) in time and space; and alternative, noncausal explanations for the relationship (such as spurious ones) must be eliminated. Events in the physical and social worlds are generally too compl

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