Allele Combinations and Gene Ratios

Feb 3rd, 2012
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This document presents an introduction to genetics. Simple Mendelian situations are dealt with:dominant and recessive alleles and their combinations. An interesting feature is the use of human phenotypes like tongue-rolling and sickle-cell anemia to give substance and importance to the topic. Diagrams supplement the explanation, and solutions to the exercises are provided. Some work on ratio of phenotypes is presented informally.

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Genetics: Genes and allelesImportant : the gene is a unit of inheritance. The complete set of genes determines your genotype.Your phenotype is how these genes determine your appearance or other observable traits Alleles are different versions of the same gene. Four important points to note are worth noting:1. Genes occur in pairs (unless there is a fault). You have two versions of each gene.2. You receive one gene from one parent, and another one from the other parent, making a pair of genes.3. For some simple characteristics (phenotypes) two genes are responsible, but many are determined by more than just two. Here, we will study only the simple situation.4. Usually one gene is dominant - written with a Capital letter, while the other is recessive- written with a small letter. A dominant gene will be expressed (shows itself in the phenotype), a recessive gene does not express itself.To understand these concepts better, consider the gene that allows you to roll your tongue G and the other version g, which does not.In the diagrams below two possible situations are considered.(1) From Father G g From Mother G GG Gg g gG gg(2) From Father

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