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PLANTS are defined as multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Any member of the plant kingdom, comprising about 260,000 known species of mosses, liverworts, ferns, herbaceous and woody plants, bushes, vines, trees, and various other forms that mantle the Earth and are also found in its waters.

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Lecture SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS(from Starr and Taggart) AN OVERVIEW OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOMI N V E R T E B R A T E SAnimals probably arose from protistanlike ancestors about 900 million years ago.Perhaps they arose from a colonial organism like Volvox .The placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens is possibly typical of the earliest multicellular animals.It is a plate-shaped, two-layered animal with no symmetry and no organs.SPONGESSponges (Phylum Porifera) are mostly marine animals of widely varying size and shape.Sponges have an asymmetric body with no true tissues, no organs, no nerve cells.Flattened cells cover the exterior.Collar cells line the interior chambers.By means of their beating flagella, these cells move large volumes of water in through body pores and out through the large osculum at the top of the body.They also trap suspended food particles in their microvilli collars and transfer the food to amoebalike cells in the matrix.Between the two layers of cells there is a semifluid matrix with needlelike spicules for support forming a skeletal framework.Feeding in sponges is dependent on collar cells, pores and water flow.Sponges reproduce sexually and asexually.Sperm are released into the surrounding water to be picked up by a nearby sponge and directed to the egg within the matrix.The zygote develops into a free-swimming larva.Asexually, sponges reproduce by fragmentation and g

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