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What are the effects of different temperature on the rate of salivary amylase reaction? Hypothesis:As the temperature increase, the rate of amylase reaction increase until it reaches the optimum temperature.

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SCRA.19 AB.02 AGEING BIOLOGY 02 Ageing biomolecules (DNA) & Genome Maintenance Key objectives - Understand that DNA damage is common and the possible responses to such damage- Understand the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell biology and ageing (more later) - Detail what Cockayne syndrome may tell us about ageing- Describe the possible role/s of telomeres and epigenetics during ageingDNA damageDNA is irreplaceable and so maintenance is necessary to prevent mutations accumulating and maintaining genomic integrity. There are over 10,000 DNA damage events daily these are not necessarily mutations. They include single-strand breaks, double-stranded breaks, replication errors, chemical modifications of bases or sugars, DNA repeat instability, spontaneous base exclusions, inter- and intra- strand cross-links. DNA damage is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). These are molecules that have an unpaired electron which makes them highly reactive. They damage DNA by acquiring an electron and causing oxidative damage (OILRIG). ROS are made by UV light, ionising radiation e.g. radiotherapy, chemicals e.g. chemotherapy, toxins and various cell-intrinsic processes. Leakage from the electron transport chain in mitochondria can oxidise nearby molecules to create ROs. Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyse the oxidation of lipids, steroids and drugs. Free radicals are produced in these reactions. Peroxisomes are organelles involved in the catabol

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