biology : thyroid

May 20th, 2015
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The thyroid gland in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, The isthmus (the bridge between the two lobes of the thyroid) is located inferior to the cricoid cartilage.

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Thyroid Thethyroid gland invertebrateanatomy, is one of the largestendocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in theneck, below thethyroid cartilage(which forms thelaryngeal prominence, The isthmus (the bridge between the two lobes of the thyroid) is located inferior to thecricoid cartilage.The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makesproteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to otherhormones. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones beingtriiodothyronine(T3) andthyroxinewhich can sometimes be referred to as tetraiodothyronine (T4). These hormones regulate therate of metabolismand affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3and T4are synthesized from bothiodineandtyrosine. The thyroid also producescalcitonin, which plays a role incalcium homeostasis.Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated bythyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) produced by theanterior pituitary, which itself is regulated bythyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) produced by thehypothalamus.The most common problems of the thyroid gland consist of an overactive thyroid gland, referred to ashyperthyroidism, and an underactive thyroid gland, referred to ashypothyroidism.he thyroid gland is covered by a fibrous sheath, thecapsula glandulae thyroidea, composed of an internal and external layer. The external layer is anteriorly continuous

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