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The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciencesand social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.)

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Thehistory of scienceis the study of the historical development ofscienceand scientific knowledge, including both thenatural sciencesandsocial sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as thehistory of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented in a progressive narrative in which true theories replaced false beliefs.[1]More recent historical interpretations, such as those ofThomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science.[2]Scienceis a body ofempirical,theoretical, andpracticalknowledge about thenatural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation,explanation, and prediction of real worldphenomena.Historiographyof science, in contrast, often draws on thehistorical methodsof bothintellectual historyandsocial history. However, the English wordscientistis relatively recentfirst coined byWilliam Whewellin the 19th century. Previously, people investigating nature called themselvesnatural philosophers.Whileempiricalinvestigationsof the natural world have been described sinceclassical antiquity(for example, byThales,Aristotle, and others), andscientific methodshave be

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