notes in biology

May 20th, 2015
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Hypertonic environment – cell has a lower concentration of solutes; higher water potential than surrounding extracellular fluid Osmosis – diffusion of water. An erythrocyte placed in a hypertonic solution would crenate, become distorted in

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BiologyHypertonic environment cell has a lower concentration of solutes; higher water potential than surrounding extracellular fluidOsmosis diffusion of waterAn erythrocyte placed in a hypertonic solution would crenate, become distorted in shape.Hypotonic environment cell has a higher concentration of solutes than the solution outside the cell which causes the cell to wellIsotonic environment cell has equal concentration with the solution outside the cellMembrane proteins act as enzymes and receptor sites; function for chemical transport, intercellular communication, cell-to-cell recognition, and attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrixFormation and transport of vesicles:1. Secretory proteins are assembled by the ribosomes on the rough ER which, in turn, extrudes them across the ER into its channels2. Enzymes embedded the smooth ER may chemically modify some of the proteins3. Proteins pass through more channels to the Golgi body4. Proteins are encapsulated in vesicles by the pinching together of membranes of the Golgi body5. Vesicles then pass through the cytoplasm, fuse with the interior surface of the plasma membrane and release their contents to the exterior.Lymphocytes subclass of white blood cells that are divided into two types: B-lymphoctes and T-lymphocytesB-lymphocytes secretes antibodies for humoral immune response, where it binds to the antigen and eventually destroys it.Non-specific defenses sur

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