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Feb 3rd, 2012
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A health club annually surveys its members. Last year, 33% of the members said they use the treadmill at least 4 times a week. How large of sample should be taken this year to estimate the percentage of members who use the treadmill at least 4 times a week? The estimate is desired to have a margin of error of 5% with a 95% level of confidence. Compare and contrast the concepts of effect size and statistical significance. What is the difference between a statistically significant result and a clinically or “real world” significant result? Give examples of both. What is NHST? Describe the assumptions of the model. Describe and explain three criticisms of NHST. Describe and explain two alternatives to NHST. What do their proponents consider to be their advantages? Which type of analysis would best answer the research question you stated in response below, Justify your answer.

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1. What does p = .05 mean? What are some misconceptions about the meaning of p =.05? Why are they wrong? Should all research adhere to the p = .05 standard for significance? Why or why not?Answerp = 0.05 means signifance level of the given sample size. P= 0.05 is a threshold given by fisher used to check the significance or non significance of a sample size. Fisher does not explain the 0.05 clearly like from where it came what are the concepts behind the value of p. So people will remain in confusion about the choice of the value of 0.05. But it was assumed that 0.05 is just an arbitrary number fisher assumed which is used to check the significance level. No it is not necessary to adhere all research to the value 0.05 as it is not proved its origin hence we can make some other arbitrary constant for the same with proper reasoning.2. Compare and contrast the concepts of effect size and statistical significance.AnswerEffect size is a simple way of quantifying the difference between two groups that has many advantages over the use of tests of statistical significance alone. Effect size emphasizes the size of the difference rather than confounding this with sample size. If effect size comes under the purview of 0.05 then it is said to be significant and acceptable but it is goes beyond the purview of 0.05 then the effect size or the sample size is said to be non significant.3. What is the difference between a statistically significant result and a clinically or "real wor

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