case study Typhoid fever

May 29th, 2015
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York St John University
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fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. S. typhosa is a short, plump, gram negative rod that is flagellated and actively motile. Contaminated food or water is the common medium of contagion.

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INTRODUCTIONTyphoid fever , otherwise known as enteric fever, is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. S. typhosa is a short, plump, gram negative rod that is flagellated and actively motile. Contaminated food or water is the common medium of contagion. The disease follows four stages. The first stage is known as incubation period, usually 10- 14 days in occurrence. In this stage generalization of the infection occurs. In the second stage, aggregation of the macrophages and edema in focal areas indicates bacterial localization (embolization) and resultant toxic injury which disappear after few days. The third stage of disease is dominated by effects of local bacterial injury especially in the intestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. The fourth stage, or the stage of lysis, is the stage wherein the infectious process is gradually overcome. Symptoms slowly disappear and the temperature gradually returns to normal. The symptoms of typhoid fever include high fever, chills, cough, muscle pain, weakness, stomach pain, headache and a rash made up of flat, rose-colored spots. Diarrhea is a less common symptom of a typhoid fever, although it is a gastrointestinal disease. Sometimes there are mental changes, know as 'typhoid psychosis'. A characteristic feature of typhoid psychosis is plucking at the bedclothes if patient is confined to bed. Risk factors for acquiring typhoid fever likely include improper food handling,

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