Case study Nephrolithiasis

May 29th, 2015
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University of South Dakota
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Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is a disease affecting the urinary tract. Kidney stones are small deposits that build up in the kidneys, made of calcium, phosphate and other components of foods.

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I. INTRODUCTION:Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is a disease affecting the urinary tract. Kidney stones are small deposits that build up in the kidneys,made of calcium, phosphate and other components of foods. They are a common cause of blood in urine. Some types of stones tend to run in families. Some types may be associated with other conditions such as bowel disease, ileal bypass for obesity, or renal tubule defects. A personal or family history of stones is associated with increased risk of stone formation. Other risk factors include renal tubular acidosis and resultant nephrocalcinosis. Kidney stone formation may result when the urine becomes overly concentrated with certain substances. These substances in the urine may complex to form small crystals and subsequently stones.Stones may not produce symptoms until they begin to move down the ureter, causing pain. The pain is severe and often starts in the flank region and moves down to the groin. The size of the renal stone will dictate the natural history of this condition.If the stone is less the 5mm in diameter, then it will most likely pass on future urination. If the stone is larger than 5mm, urological procedures may be required to remove the stone. Surgical intervention will be required in any patient whose urinary tract in completely obstructed. This situations represents a surgical emergency. Symptoms of renal stone disease may include:Pain: unilateral or bilateral flank or back pain. Is is normally severe

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