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ORGANIZATION OF CHROMOSOMESChromosomes are condensed form of DNA and Histones Are carriers of heredityCan be defined as The nuclear components of special organization individuality and function.The term chromosome was coined by Waldeyer in 1888; chroma meaning color, and soma meaning bodies (since when the cells were stained, the chromosomes got stained distinctly and so were thought to be naturally colored)Maximum condensation of DNA material is seen in Metaphase stage where chromosomes are studied very wellThe chromatids are highly coiled double helical strands of KINETOCHORE has highly repetitive sequences of DNA measures 0.2 to 0.25 nm in diameter Importance of centromere spindle fibres get attached to theseChromosomes (a) Autosomes (b) AllosomesAutosomes Vegetative Chromosomes carry genes for the vegetative characters of the individual 44 in humansAllosomes Sex Chromosomes carry genes for sexual character 2 in numbersHence, total chromosomes in humans 44 + 2 = 46 (23 pairs) in males = 44 + XY; in females = 44 + XXAscaris has 2 chromosomes; Paramaecium has 30 chromosomes; frog has 30; onion has 16; Rabbit has 44; Potato has 48; House fly has 12; Mosquito has 6; Humans have 46; Aulocantha has 1600 odd chromosomes (highest number known)The size of the chromosome is measured in metaphase stage. It is 0.25 m in fungi and birds; 30 m in plants; 3 m in drosophilla; 5 m in man; 8

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