Republic of the PhilippinesSUPREME COURTManilaEN BANCG.R. No. 143855 September 21, 2010REPRESENTATIVES GERARDO S. ESPINA, ORLANDO FUA, JR., PROSPERO AMATONG, ROBERT ACE S. BARBERS, RAUL M. GONZALES, PROSPERO PICHAY, JUAN MIGUEL ZUBIRI and FRANKLIN BAUTISTA,Petitioners,vs.HON. RONALDO ZAMORA, JR. (Executive Secretary), HON. MAR ROXAS (Secretary of Trade and Industry), HON. FELIPE MEDALLA (Secretary of National Economic and Development Authority), GOV. RAFAEL BUENAVENTURA (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas) and HON. LILIA BAUTISTA (Chairman, Securities and Exchange Commission),Respondents.D E C I S I O NABAD,J.:This case calls upon the Court to exercise its power of judicial review and determine the constitutionality of the Retail Trade Liberalization Act of 2000, which has been assailed as in breach of the constitutional mandate for the development of a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.The Facts and the CaseOn March 7, 2000 President Joseph E. Estrada signed into law Republic Act (R.A.) 8762, also known as the Retail Trade Liberalization Act of 2000. It expressly repealed R.A. 1180, which absolutely prohibited foreign nationals from engaging in the retail trade business. R.A. 8762 now allows them to do so under four categories:Category ALess thanUS$2,500,000.00Exclusively for Filipino citizens and corporations wholly owned by Filipino citizens.Category BUS$2,500,000.00 up but less than US$7,500,000.