# Quantum Physics

Jun 17th, 2015
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A photon is a discrete packet {or quantum} of energy of an electromagnetic radiation/wave. Energy of a photon, E = h f = hc / λ where h: Planck's constant λviolet ≈ 4 x 10-7 m, λred ≈ 7 x 10-7 m Power of electromagnetic radiation, P = Rate of incidence of photon x Energy of a photon = (N/t)(hc/λ)

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Quantum PhysicsAphotonis a discretepacket {or quantum} of energyof anelectromagnetic radiation/wave.Energy of a photon,E = h f = hc / ?where h: Planck's constant?violet? 4 x 10-7m, ?red? 7 x 10-7mPowerof electromagnetic radiation,P = Rate of incidence of photon x Energy of a photon = (N/t)(hc/?)Photoelectric effectrefers to theemission of electronsfrom a coldmetal surfacewhenelectromagnetic radiationofsufficiently high frequencyfalls on it.4 Major Observations:1. No electrons are emitted if the frequency of the light is below a minimum frequency {called thethreshold frequency}, regardless of the intensity of light2. Rate of electron emission {ie photoelectric current} is proportional to the light intensity.3. {Emitted electrons have a range of kinetic energy,ranging from zero to a certain maximum value. Increasing the freq increases the kinetic energies of the emitted electrons and in particular, increases the maximum kinetic energy.}Thismaximumkinetic energy depends only on the frequency and the metal used {?}; the intensity has no effect on the kinetic energy of the electrons.4. Emission of electrons beginsinstantaneously{i.e. no time lag between emission & illumination} even if the intensity is very low.NB: (1), (3) & (4) cannot be explained by Wave Theory of Light; instead they provide evidence for the particulate/particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.Explanation for how photoelectric effect provides evidence for the particul

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