# Physics (With Maths Combination) Curriculum

Jun 17th, 2015
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1. Vector Analysis (10): Scalar and vector fields, gradient of a scalar field and its physical significance. Divergence and curl of a vector field and related problems. Vector integration, line, surface and volume integrals. Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems- simple applications.

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Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics is a general principle which places constraints upon the direction ofheat transferand the attainable efficiencies ofheat engines. In so doing, it goes beyond the limitations imposed by the first law of thermodynamics. Its implications may be visualized in terms of the waterfall analogy:If you are constrained to put your waterwheel half-way up the waterfall, then you can extract at most half of the available energy; if a 600K heat engine must exhaust heat at 300K, then it could be at most 50% efficient.The maximum efficiency which can be achieved is theCarnot efficiency.Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible to extract an amount of heat QHfrom a hot reservoir and use it all to do work W. Some amount of heat QCmust be exhausted to a cold reservoirSecond Law of Thermodynamics: It is not possible forheatto flow from a colder body to a warmer body without anyworkhaving been done to accomplish this flow. Energy will not flow spontaneously from a lowtemperatureobject to a higher temperature objectSecond Law of Thermodynamics: In any cyclic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same.The second law also considers the entropy of a system. Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder (chaos) in a system. A good rule of thumb is the more disorder you have, the more energy you have.Forward and BackwardYou might hear the termreversibility. Scientists use the ter

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