physics Notes

Jun 17th, 2015
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1 Radiation physics Atom structure Mainly empty space plus nucleus. Nucleus made up of nucleons: neutrons and protons. - A = number of nucleons - Z = atomic number (protons) A – Z = neutrons Nuclide – species of nucleus characterised by the two numbers Z and A.

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RESOLUTIONAXIALLATERALOrientationFront-to-backParallelSide-by-sidePerpendicularMnemonicLARRDLongitudinalAxialRangeRadialDepthLATALateralAngularTransverseAzimuthalDetermined byPulse lengthBeam WidthBest withShortest pulseHighest frequency/shortest wavelengthFewest cycles in pulse (less ringing)Narrowest BeamDoes it change?No, same at all depthsYes, changes with depthBest at focusIn near field best withShortest pulseSmallest diameter crystalIn far field best withShortest pulseLargest diameter & Highest frequency(least divergence)Axial resolution is superior to Lateral ResolutionHIGH TEMPORAL RESOLUTIONHigh Frame RateShallow Imaging depthFewer pulses per imageSingle focusingNarrow sectorLow line densityBetter movie, but low quality imageSmall packet sizePULSED SOUNDPulse DurationPulse Repetition PeriodPulsed Repetition FrequencyDuty FactorSpatial Pulse Length- Time the pulse is on- Sound source- Cannot change- Time from start to next start- listening time- Sound source- Changeable- Determined by depth of view- Number of pulses per sec- Sound source- Changeable- NOT related to frequency- shallow image high PRF- inversely related to PRP- no units/%DF = PD/PRP- Sound source- Changeable- distance a pulse occupies- BOTH: source and medium- Cannot change- determines Axial resolutionShallow imaging ~ High PRF ~ High Duty Factor ~ Short Pulse Repetition Period PROPAGATION SP

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