Networking of computers: The way Internet works

Jun 17th, 2015
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Invention of computers changed the working style of people in twentieth century. Its capability to tirelessly and sequentially do arithmetical and logical operations made the human life simpler and faster. Offices, universities, banks, schools etc. nothing remained unaffected by use of computers.

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APPLICATION OF MOTION OF CHARGE PARTICLE IN MASS SPECTROMETERMASS SPECTROMETERIn 1995, the Galileo spacecraft dropped a probe into Jupiters atmosphere. One instrument onboard, call a mass spectrometer, was used to determine the composition of the atmosphere. Thedata shows in Figure 1 are called mass spectrum, a record of the masses of atoms and moleculesthat were encountered.Figure 1 Mass spectrum1A mass spectrometer can be used to measure the mass of positive ions and does measure atomicand molecular masses. Figure 2 shows a diagram of a mass spectrometer.Figure 2 A diagram of a mass spectrometerA sample to be analyze is collected and if necessary vaporized to form a gas. The atom andmolecules in this sample are then ionized in the ionizing chamber: An electron is removed fromeach atom or molecule, leaving a positive ion. The resulting ions are accelerated through anelectric field, an ion of a particular velocity selected. These ions traveled into a region of uniformmagnetic field, where they follow circular paths according to their mass to charge (m/e) ratio. Anexit slit allows certain ions to pass through to a detector, where they are counted.2A mass spectrometer can derives information from the motion of a charged particle in theuniform magnetic field. The particle will travel in the circular orbit, the radius given by theequation below. The radius depends on the magnetic field, the velocity of the particle, the chargeof the particle and th

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