Programming fundamentals

Jun 17th, 2015
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Adelphi University
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Lathe and Milling machines are taken for case study but other machine tools like CNC grinding, CNC Hobbing, CNC filament winding machine, etc. can also be dealt with in the same manner.

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(1) Programming fundamentalsMachining involves an important aspect of relative movement between cuttingtool and workpiece. In machine tools this is accomplished by either movingthe tool with respect to workpiece or vice versa. In order to define relativemotion of two objects, reference directions are required to be defined. Thesereference directions depend on type of machine tool and are defined byconsidering an imaginary coordinate system on the machine tool. A programdefining motion of tool / workpiece in this coordinate system is known as apart program. Lathe and Milling machines are taken for case study but othermachine tools like CNC grinding, CNC Hobbing, CNC filament windingmachine, etc. can also be dealt with in the same manner.(1.1) Reference PointsPart programming requires establishment of some reference points. Threereference points are either set by manufacturer or user.a) Machine OriginThe machine origin is a fixed point set by the machine tool builder. Usually itcannot be changed. Any tool movement is measured from this point. Thecontroller always remembers tool distance from the machine origin.b) Program OriginIt is also called home position of the tool. Program origin is point from where thetool starts for its motion while executing a program and returns back at the end ofthe cycle. This can be any point within the workspace of the tool which issufficiently away from the part. In case of CNC lathe it is a point where toolchange is carri

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