A Case Study on Diabetes Mellitus

Jun 21st, 2015
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Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

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A Case Study on Diabetes MellitusDiabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Most cases of diabetes mellitus fall into three broad categories: type1, type2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 DM affects approximately 5% to 10% of people with the disease; it is characterized by an acute onset, usually before 30 years of age. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells.Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 90% to 95% of people with the disease. It occurs more commonly among people who are older than 30 years of age and also, obese. The two main problems associated with type 2 DM are insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance refers to the decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin. Insufficient insulin refers to the decreased production of the pancreas of insulin to facilitate uptake of glucose to the tissues. The exact mechanism of why this happens in DM 2 is unknown but genetic factors are thought to play a role. Gestational diabetes mellitus, however, is any degree of glucose intolerance with its onset during pregnancy. Hyperglycemia develops during pregnancy due to secretion of placental hormones, which causes insulin resistance. This usually occurs in as many as 14% of pregnant women and increases their risk for hypertensive disorders during

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