A Case Study Phonetics

Jun 21st, 2015
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Phonetics is the study of the sounds of language. These sounds are called phonemes. There are literally hundreds of them used in different languages. Even a single language like English requires us to distinguish about 40! The key word here is distinguish. We actually make much finer discriminations among sounds, but English only requires 40. The other discriminations are what lets us detect the differences in accents and dialects, identify individuals, and differentiate tiny nuances of speech that indicate things beyond the obvious meanings of the words.

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IntroductionBackgroundOsteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone and its structures secondary to infection with pyogenic organisms.PathophysiologyThe infection associated with osteomyelitis may be localized or it may spread through the periosteum, cortex, marrow, and cancellous tissue. The bacterial pathogen varies on the basis of the patient's age and the mechanism of infection. The following are the 2 primary categories of acute osteomyelitis: hematogenous osteomyelitis and direct or contiguous inoculation osteomyelitis.Hematogenous osteomyelitis is an infection caused by bacterial seeding from the blood. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is characterized by an acute infection of the bone caused by the seeding of the bacteria within the bone from a remote source. This condition primarily occurs in children. The most common site is the rapidly growing and highly vascular metaphysis of growing bones. The apparent slowing or sludging of blood flow as the vessels make sharp angles at the distal metaphysis predisposes the vessels to thrombosis and the bone itself to localized necrosis and bacterial seeding. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis, despite its name, may have a slow clinical development and insidious onset.Direct or contiguous inoculation osteomyelitis is caused by direct contact of the tissue and bacteria during trauma or surgery. Direct inoculation (contiguous-focus) osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone secondary to the inoculat

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