Forgotten Witness: Evidence For The Early

Jun 21st, 2015
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Three kinds of historical evidence are examined here that have not previously being seriously considered in relation to the question of codification. The Umayyad inscriptions from the Dome of the Rock have generally being ignored or dismissed because of apparent departures from the "canonical" text, as represented by the Cairo edition; here they are analyzed for the evidence they nonetheless provide for the state of the Qur'anic text toward the end of the first hijri century. Equally informative are al-Walid's inscriptions at the Great Mosque of al-Madinah, datable about twenty years later; they were described by eyewitnesses in the first half of the tenth century, when they were still partly visible. Finally, from scattered indications it is suggested that there was group of professional Qur'an copyists at al-Madinah at the end of the first and the beginning of the second century.

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ArticleSuccess in a dynamic industrySection:No industry is stable over time. Industries will always experience changes as they progress, some with shorter time frames, others with longer time frames, but eventually change will affect every industry. Industry demand is likely to be unstable, with growth or decline cycles influenced by technology innovation, changes in customer needs and ever-changing environments. Inflection points in the industry development cycles - points where industry growth rate changes abruptly - set significant challenges for companies to remain competitive and survive. One example of an inflection point is a disruptive technology change, but there are other, often more frequent inflection points such as rapid onset of demand or irreversible decrease on the demand facilitated by changes in customer needs or regulation, to name a few.Many times companies do not realize future inflection points in the industry cycles, realize them too late, or simply are not capable of action when facing the changes. This inability of firms to take action can dramatically change their fortunes. Looking at the evolution of fixed and mobile communications equipment, there is a remarkable change that took place at the turn of this century. A great majority of the incumbents competing in telecommunications equipment experienced a major downturn in sales, while Nokia and Samsung kept growing and emerged as the leaders in a newly defined industry. This trend can be seen in

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