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While the skin effect is dimensionless, the associated dmage zone is not. Figure 5-1 is a typical depiction of the near-wellbore condition, with rs and ks being the penetration of damage and permeability, respectively. Outside this zone the reservoir remains undisturbed, with permeability k.

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Hawkins formula.While the skin effect is dimensionless, the associated dmage zone is not. Figure 5-1 is a typical depiction of the near-wellbore condition, with rs and ks being the penetration of damage and permeability, respectively. Outside this zone the reservoir remains undisturbed, with permeability k.A well-known equation relating the skin effect and the above variables has been presented by Hawkins (1956) and is frequently referred to as Hawkins formula. Figure 5-2 provides an easy means for the development of this relationship.If the near-wellbore permeability is the reservoir permeability (i.e., no damage), then a steady-state pressure drop between the outer boundary pressure (ps) and the well would result in a pwf,ideal given byIf, thoufh, the near-wellbore permeability is altered to ks, then the real bottomhole pressure is related byThe difference between pwf,ideal and pwf,real is exactly the pressure drop due to the skin effect, ps, which was given in Chapter 2 by Eq. (2-12). Therefore, from Eqs. (5-1), (5-2), and EXAMPLE 5-1Permeability impairment versus damage penetration.Assume that a well has a radius rw equal to 0.328 and a penetration of damage 3 ft beyond the well (i.e. rs=3.328 ft). What would be the skin effect if the permeability impairment results in k/ks equal to 5 and 10, respectively. What would be the required penetration of damage to provide the same skin effect as the latter case but with k/ks=5?Solution: From Eq. (5

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