SINGAPORE AIRLINES PPT STRUCTURING

Jun 21st, 2015
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Allen County Community College
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Singapore Airlines (SIA)' history can be traced back to May 1947, when Malayan Airways operated its first commercial flight linking Singapore with Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang.

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Study of Acids Used for the Acidified Cobalt Thiocyanate Test for Cocaine BaseAnna L. DeakinFlorida Department of Law EnforcementTampa Regional Crime Laboratory4211 North Lois AvenueTampa, FL 33611[email: annadeakin@fdle.state.fl.us]ABSTRACT: Four acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and acetic) were used as acidifying reagents in the "one well" cobalt thiocyanate test for cocaine base. Concentrated sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids were found to be equally fast as concentrated hydrochloric acid (the standard acid used in the test). In addition, dilute (down to 0.1 N) hydrochloric acid was found to be as effective as concentrated hydrochloric acid. Only concentrated hydrochloric acid gave a transient blue color upon addition to the cobalt thiocyanate reagent. A number of other controlled substances, adulterants, and diluents were also tested and confirmed to not give false positives with sulfuric, nitric, acetic, or dilute hydrochloric acids.KEYWORDS: Cocaine, Cobalt Thiocyanate, Acidified Cobalt Thiocyanate, Spot Tests, Color TestsIntroductionThe cobalt thiocyanate color test is widely used in forensic laboratories to determine the presence of cocaine salt, i.e., cocaine hydrochloride (1,2). However, the test requires a water soluble form of cocaine, and is ineffective for testing cocaine base. Therefore, a modified version of the test, the acidified cobalt thiocyanate test, is used to determine for the presence of cocaine base. The addition of an acid to the

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