Case Study of Esophageal Varices (Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding)

Jun 21st, 2015
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The portal vein carries approximately 1500 mL/min of blood from the small and large bowel, the spleen, and the stomach to the liver. Obstruction of portal venous flow, whatever the etiology, results in a rise in portal venous pressure. The response to increased venous pressure is the development of a collateral circulation diverting the obstructed blood flow to the systemic veins.

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Laoan, Czarmaine C.BSN3-5CJucutan, Elaine Joy Case Study of Esophageal Varices (Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding)BackgroundThe portal vein carries approximately 1500 mL/min of blood from the small and large bowel, the spleen, and the stomach to the liver. Obstruction of portal venous flow, whatever the etiology, results in a rise in portal venous pressure. The response to increased venous pressure is the development of a collateral circulation diverting the obstructed blood flow to the systemic veins. These portosystemic collaterals form by the opening and dilatation of preexisting vascular channels connecting the portal venous system and the superior and inferior vena cava.High portal pressure is the main cause of the development of portosystemic collaterals; however, other factors such as active angiogenesis may also be involved. The most important portosystemic anastomoses are the gastroesophageal collaterals. Draining into the azygos vein, these collaterals include esophageal varices, which are responsible for the main complication of portal hypertension -- massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.The most common causes of upper GI bleeding are duodenal (35%) and gastric ulcers (20%). Bleeding from esophageal varices is responsible for only 5-11% upper GI bleeding (incidence varies depending on geographic location). Other causes for upper GI bleeding are acute gastric erosions/hemorrhagic gastritis (18%), Mallory-Weiss tears (10%), gastric carcin

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