case study Neonatal sepsis

Jun 21st, 2015
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Alabama State University
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Neonatal sepsis may be categorized as early or late onset. Of newborns with early-onset infection, 85% present within 24 hours, 5% present at 24-48 hours, and a smaller percentage present within 48-72 hours. Onset is most rapid in premature neonates. Early-onset sepsis syndrome is associated with acquisition of microorganisms from the mother. Transplacental infection or an ascending infection from the cervix may be caused by organisms that colonize in the mother's genitourinary tract

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BackgroundNeonatal sepsis may be categorized as early or late onset. Of newborns with early-onset infection, 85% present within 24 hours, 5% present at 24-48 hours, and a smaller percentage present within 48-72 hours. Onset is most rapid in premature neonates. Early-onset sepsis syndrome is associated with acquisition of microorganisms from the mother. Transplacental infection or an ascending infection from the cervix may be caused by organisms that colonize in the mother's genitourinary tract, with acquisition of the microbe by passage through a colonized birth canal at delivery. The microorganisms most commonly associated with early-onset infection include the following[1] : Group B Streptococcus (GBS) Escherichia coliCoagulase-negative StaphylococcusHaemophilus influenzaeListeria monocytogenesTrends in the epidemiology of early-onset sepsis show a decreasing incidence of GBS sepsis. This can be attributed to the implementation of a prenatal screening and treatment protocol for GBS (see the image below).Incidence of early-onset and late-onset invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease. In a 2009 study in 4696 women, prenatal cultures showed a GBS colonization rate of 24.5%, with a positive culture rate at the time of labor of 18.8%. Up to 10% of prenatally culture-negative women were found to be positive at the time of labor. With intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis rates of 93.3%, 0.36 of 1000 infants developed early-onset GBS disease.[2, 3] Late-onset sepsi

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