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Jun 21st, 2015
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The junction of two open channels is a common occurrence in many hydraulic structures ranging from wastewater treatment facilities to fish passage conveyance structures.

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1. INTRODUCTIONThe junction of two open channels is a common occurrence in many hydraulic structures ranging from wastewater treatment facilities to sh passage conveyance structures. Conduit outlets into open channels are common hydraulic structures. They are necessarily encountered at the end of urban sewage or agricultural subsurface drainage networks, where they release water. Their construction generally aims at a maximum efficiency discharge and a protection of the channel bottom and banks against erosion processes. Their behavior and design have been considered of interest concerning channel bed erosion that could result from the flow convergence or jet impingement. There are numerous factors that inuence ow characteristics at the junction of two open channels. One set of variables can be described as geometry variables, such as the size, shape, slope, and angle between the combining channels. Many combinations of these four variables are possible. A second set are ow variables, such as the Froude number in the downstream ow, the channel roughness, the ratio of discharge between the two tributary channels, and the variation of uid properties.Concerning discharge efficiency, pipe outlets have been less thoroughly studied in terms of purely hydraulic processes, or have generally been considered as free ended in several detailed studies. The hydraulic processes involved in these structures are similar to those of a junction. It depends on flow com

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