BIOL 43b Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy midterm

Mar 30th, 2015
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Biology 43b. Comparative Vertebrate AnatomyMidterm Examination - Cells, Tissues, Bones, Muscle, and NervesAnswers1. By looking at the cladogram A, we can see that the turtle is placed on the sister branch of the bird and chrocodile (Archosauria), turtle is also a sister taxon of all other reptiles. To prove this is a more favorable classification, scientists did multiple DNA-coded protein tests, which are believed to be more accurate and trustworthy than the mitochondrial data. Scientists have cloned and sequenced two big genes producing the subunit of DNA polymerase ? and glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GAG). This DNA-coded protein test shows that the turtle is a sister group of the monophyletic group of chicken and caiman ( By looking at the cladogram B, we can see that the turtle is placed in a group with lizard (Anolis). To prove this relationship, scientists did the miRNA genes experiemnts. After the phylogenetic analysis, it is found out that the alligator shares one miRNA, miR-1791 with the birds, note that the alligator and crocodile both belong to the group called crocodilians. On the other hand, it is shown that the turtles and lizards share four of the 77 unique miRNA gene families in Anolis that are not found in the genome of other organisms. From the evidence above, it can be concluded that there is a sister relationhip of the turtle and liza

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