A Brief History of Humankind Sapiens
Yuval Noah Harari
Contributed by Tereasa Jacob
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Chapter 4
Summary

According to Harari, (59) the sea barrier prevented not just humans but also many other Afro-Asian animals and plants from reaching this ‘Outer World.” The issue of water separating human sapiens was a serious one, but sapiens had to think of how to travel by sea.  The chapter notes that the water bodies like oceans prevented the Afro-Asian animals to venture into the outer world like Australia. The water bodies created a barrier that made it difficult for humans and animals to explore other land masses and settle there. However, due to the cognitive revolution, technology improved and it became possible for the Afro-Asian people to move to Asia and other unsettled lands as well as islands. Thus, the chapter believes that the cognitive revolution that happened to humanity facilitated the movement of plants and animals to other places or continents for settlement and that accounts for the widespread of people across the world.

Analysis

The chapter, figuratively and literally, refer to the migration of sapiens to different parts of the world.  In the outset, physical barriers like oceans hindered the movement of sapiens to other places or continents. Since sapiens were creative and innovative, they had to develop ways of accessing other parts of the world. The ability to think creatively enabled sapiens to navigate through the physical features like oceans until it reached other parts of the world. It is on account of cognitive revolution that mankind was then able to spread across the world and indeed that is why people are settled across Europe, Asia, America, Asia and Africa.

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