Incentives are a recurrent theme in Freakonomics. Levitt and Dubner use the concept of incentives to explain why people act the way they do. McCaffrey defines an incentive as anything which motivates human behavior or encourages a person to make one decision and forego another (77). Arguably, the truth of economics is that the primary reason a person behaves differently is that she or he expects to make the greatest gain from choosing a particular course of action. Therefore, the concept of incentives in this book depicts the idea that individuals take a certain course of action which they believe will make their lives better. The authors list various categories of incentives: social, economic, and moral. For example, Levitt and Dubner demonstrate a perfect form of social incentives using the Israeli Day-Care center. Although the school enacted a $3 fine as an economic incentive to deter parents from picking up their children late, this fine substituted for social incentives when the parent started buying off their guilt for late pickups. Additionally, the cheating of sumo and schoolteachers shows an economic incentive whereby the teachers inflated students’ test scores to avoid reassignment to other schools and for a chance to get a $25,000 bonus. Subsequently, the authors state that it is the powerful impact of incentives that inhibit many people from committing crimes. Arguably, the powerful negative impact of economic and social incentives emanating from a person being jailed, such as losing one's job, family, house, and freedom prevents many people from engaging in crimes. A good example is depicted in chapter 4 where the low profits of cocaine contributed to a decline in crime in the 1990's (122). Many people opted not to risk their lives simply because the incentives were insignificant, thereby, leading to fewer killings. The authors argue everyone, even criminals, respond to incentives (66).