Homo Deus
Yuval Noah Harari
Contributed by Andrea Barraza
Chapter 4

In this chapter, Harari discusses the contrast that exists between animals and the Homo sapiens. For instance, he indicates that animals, such as chimpanzees and wolves, live in a “dual reality” (Harari 72), and are fully aware of the various objects in their environment. Some of the objects that surround animals include rocks, trees, and rivers. At the same time, they are aware of the effects of such objects in their lives as it relates to making them fearful, happy and full of desire. In contrast, “Sapiens, in contrast, live in triple-layered reality” (Harari 72). Thus, in addition to knowing tree, rivers, and rocks, Homo sapiens also have information regarding money, corporations, nations, and gods — making them geared more towards identifying how the specific elements presented are likely to have an impact. Some of the notable corporations known to the Homo sapiens include Google and Microsoft.

As it relates to gods, some groups of Homo sapiens appear to be followers of Jesus and his teachings, and are referred to as Christians (Harari 79). They hold the perception that, through the measure, they are likely to attain some level of contentment in their lives while identifying the specific steps to take in attaining worldwide recognition, which would be important for them. This will also likely push Homo sapiens towards identifying the specific moral actions that they are likely to stick to in the world, while also determining the level of liberalism that they are likely to have. Harari provides that the gods “didn’t exist anywhere except in the human imagination” (Harari 81), and aims to show that the achievements made by human beings are mostly their own doing, and not out of any mystical powers.


To demonstrate the difference between animals and the Homo sapiens, specifically in relation to how they perceive the environment around them, Harari aims to reiterate the superiority of human beings. The difference in the duality and triple-view that animals and human beings respectively have regarding their environments is also critical in showing their approach. The author aims to show the need for more value to be placed on human beings, yet much of the information he provides goes contrary to the assertions posted. They show that human beings have had notable negative outcomes in relation to the place of animals and other elements of nature. He states that “as history unfolded, the impact of gods, nations, and corporations grew at the expense of rivers, fears and desires” (Harari 72). The view that corporations, nations, and gods differentiating human beings from animals is also true. Thus, the situation is likely to make such people attain success in becoming more conscious of the environment, and aware of the changes they need to undertake in their lives to have a closer association with one another.

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